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Leafrollers are primarily foliar and quarantine pests of apples (M.

domestica) and other horticultural crops around the world.

Plants release volatiles in response to caterpillar feeding that attract natural enemies of the herbivores, a tri-trophic interaction which has been considered an indirect plant defence against herbivores.

The caterpillar-induced plant volatiles have been reported to repel or attract conspecific adult herbivores.

Most studies that have isolated and identified herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) that are behaviourally active in repelling or attracting herbivores have been based solely on laboratory bioassays.

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